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The Kris and the Spiritual Kejawen

By: Toni Junus 1)

The photograph 1: Workshop (besalen) Empu KRT. Subandi Suponingrat - worked on the prestige from the material of iron meteorite.

The photograph 1: Workshop (besalen) Empu KRT. Subandi Suponingrat - worked on the prestige from the material of iron meteorite.

 

Abstract

The kris culture was not free from two aspects of the understanding that is material and non-material; tangible and intangible. Initially, the function of the kris was as the weapon stabbed, in his trip shifted as the social status carried a spiritual charge, as ‘ageman’ or the heirloom for generations. The production procession of the kris, was the ritual narration that was provided a basis for by the spiritual Javanese treatment. Because of that the kris was the cultural expression empu (smith) in his religious duties.

Kejawen from Javanese words (Jawa): Javanism, was Javanese's activity in the search for knowledge about the true life, became a personalify of hereditary society about his spiritual life, as well as was practised in the conduct of his external life. One of his principles was to look for the true life (urip = lived; sejati = true) achieved relations that were harmonious between the slave and the Lord, Jumbuhing kawulo Gusti (jumbuhing = a good relation, the uniting; kawulo = the slave; Gusti = Tuhan, Allah).

Kejawen was the teaching that was original from Javanese's ancestors, that previously was not yet affected by the influence of the outside culture. Meaning that before the Hindu culture and Buddha entered Java, the ancestors have in Java had the spiritual culture personally. As being proven to be available by the existence of several spiritual Javanese look methods in the Hindu culture and Buddha. Nevertheless, now we inherit Kejawen that through the process of other cultural syncretism in fact sincretic with religions2).

Kejawen had the wide meaning, covered good manners, the conviction, philosophy, art, the tradition, the good works, knightly, leadership, etc…. In the old note was known by the existence of the belief current that was acknowledged as Sastro Jendra Hayuningrat Pangruwating Diyu (Sastro = the article; Jendra = Harjendra, the God Indra, the Lord as the manifestation of the universe and the life; Hayu = peaceful and good; Ing Rat = in the world and in himself personal; Pangruwat = changed; Diyu = the Giant, greedy, the bad character, rudeness). The article or the Deity's book to head peace by changing the uncivilised character towards civilisation (to civiliziation).

Sastro Jendra could be in the side of the universal look understood as ‘God Literature’3) that grew from human faith through the studying understanding in nature and the life (macrocosmos), was is software programmable in himself humankind (microcosmos) as well as filled in all the aspects of the life.

Sastro Jendra in the book of Betaljemur Adam Makna was mentioned: Mustikaning kawruh ingkang kuwasa amartani ing karahayon, karaharjan, katentreman lan the sak panunggilipun, memayu hayuning bawana. Meaning that his precious theology as the living guide headed the safety, welfare and peace in the life himself and for world goodness.

The understanding of Sastro Jendra Hayuningrat produced Memayu Hayuning Bawono (the involvement to harmonise the world ) conception - maintained the balance of the world in a sense that was wide; conserved the universe for welfare of his life; was begun from human to human beings, and between man and the universe is based on the harmonious relationship between humankind and the Lord.

Afterwards from the Sastro Jendra (Kejawen) literature, emerged a dream about the matter of human eminence that enclosed the understanding of the character of humankind.

 

The Production procession of the Heirloom Kris

On the anonymous note that was gotten from one of the books without the title in the library of Radhya Pustaka - Surakarta that his letter of Jawa Carik (the Javanese letter), was translated freely in the latin language4), including being named in order:

  1. Kyahi empu nyamektakaken ubarampening wilah tuwin tosan waja, sinambi nindakaken samadi supados pikantuk wisik ngingingi wujud punapa ingkang gegayutan kaliyan dhuwung ingkang badhe kadamel, kalarasaken kaliyan pakaryaning tiyang ingkang nyuwun kadamelaken dhuwung punika, kadosta: supados kathah rejekinipun utawi kangge kapangkatan. Inggih ing wekdal punika mujudaken wekdal panyrantos ingkang panjang, amargi kyahi empu boten miwiti pakaryanipun saderengipun angsal tumuruning pitedah.

    Empu (smith) prepared and to cast a spell on the material of steels, while carrying out meditation to get the inspiration about the matter of the form of the kris that will be made, in accordance with his customer's profession; like so that hopefully will be successful him or was useful to gain the position. In this stage was long waiting because empu (smith) will not begin before getting the guidance of the Lord.

    Discussions no. 1: The sentence so that hopefully will be successful or was useful to gain the position; gave the understanding that the kris was indeed created in order to have the strength (magic power) for an aim and could be useful to someone through the guidance of the Lord.

  2. Manawi tataran ngajeng kala wau sampun dipun lampahi, mila kyahi empu miwiti benjing punapa anggenipun badhe miwiti pandameling dhuwung punika, kyahi empu ugi ngetang dhawahing dinten ingkang anggenipun kedah kendel nyambut damel, amargi mujudaken dinten awon. Kyahi empu kedah lebda dhateng ngelmi Candrasengkala saha ngelmi petangan dinten.

    After the first stage was finished, afterwards empu began to search the day that was exact to get the day that was good for began the production of the kris, and when must stop resting to through the ugly day. Empu in this case understood Candrasengkala knowledge (calculations based on the moon) and the calculation of a good day.

    Discussions no. 2: in the everyday behaviour, the Javanese ethnic group had the belief to be avoided from the misfortune, that is the belief in the calculation of the good day.

  3. Sasampunipun katamtokaken dinten wiwitanipun, mila kyahi empu nyamektakaken sajen kangge nindakaken tatacara ingkang ancasipun nyuwun idin tuwin berkah miwah nyenyapa dhateng kekiyatan-kekiyatan ngalam ingkang mujudaken titahing Hyang Tunggal. Sajen punika wonten kalih warni: Sajen baku inggih punika sajen ingkang dipun tindakaken turun-tumurun antawisipun: tumpeng, sekar setaman, sekar telon, pisang raja, jenang abrit, jenang baro-baro, jenang rajah, jenang bolong, bekaka ayam, sambel goreng ati, kinangan sata, sedhah, apu, teh pait saha kopi pait, sentir, wewangen mliginipun kutukan menyan saha dupa. Wonten sajen wewahan sinebat sajen barikan inggih punika manawi kyahi empu angsal wisik mligi kadosta mewahi tigan ceplok, sok ugi kawewahan rah ayam pethak mulus lan sapanunggilanipun. Kyahi empu pancen lebda dhateng ngelmi sarana, utawi ngelmi sajen. Amargi sajen ingkang kagelar punika anggadhahi pralambang ingkang boten sok tiyanga mangretos.

    After decisive the day was good for began, then empu equipped the ritual offering for the ceremony requested permission from the strength of nature that also was the creation Hyang Tunggal. His ritual offering was 2 (two) the kind that is the main ritual offering (sesaji baku) that was carried out hereditary in accordance with the main guide (pakem), like tumpeng, the flower a garden, the flower of three forms, the bananas, supervised red, supervised baro-baro, supervised rajah, supervised bolong (like a eternity symbol), bekakak (the chicken), fried chilli sauce chicken liver, tobacco (kinangan), the betel leaves, the betel lime, unsweetened tea, black coffee and lantern, after all available and empu was burning incense. The second was acknowledged as the ritual offering barikan, was the additional ritual offering because empu received the guidance or the inspiration; for example to have to add fried egg, the white chicken or that was other, afterwards was eaten together. Empu indeed controlled Sarono knowledge (ilmu sarono; Jw) or ritual offering knowledge, one by one from the offering materials had the symbolism, not everyone knew what the means.

    Discussions no. 3: Appropriately the belief read a nature as the interaction of humankind naturally, emerged the awareness of the sincerity to carry out the dedication to the Lord of the realisation of nature that gave his life. The human dedication to nature with his symbolism became hope and or his opposite seemed like humankind knew nature ask for to be carried out ritual. That’s mean ‘ask’ for in the context as the human inspiration to receive the signal until knowing the imbalance situation of nature that needed his harmony. The dedication was acknowledged as the ritual offering, then in the procession of the kris creation was carried out by the main ritual offering (sesaji baku) as well as had the additional ritual offering (sesaji barikan).

    The barikan ritual offering (sesaji barikan) was as the additional ritual offering that could harmonise the aim of this kris creation. Was the inspiration from empu, but every time did not compose the kris must equip ‘barikan offering’. For example: because of the plague situation of the illness in the period, Srisusuhunan Paku Buwana IV ordered made the charm kris, because of the special situation then in his procession was needed by the ritual ‘barikan offering’. When Suran (1 Suro in 1997? ) in the palace Surakarta Hadiningrat had announced ‘barikan offering’ took the form of black sticky rice was given sweet sugar (madu mongso), so that each family also holds this ritual offering afterwards was eaten together. As efforts to deny a disaster that was forecasted happened, meaning that with ‘barikan offering’ was hoped for so that nature could again harmonious.

  4. Pangucaping japamantra, nalika jaman rumiyin padatanipun taksih angginakaken basa Jawi Kina, nanging ing pungkasaning jaman Majapait ewah sacara Islam. Tuladhanipun: jaman rumiyin kawiwitan kanthi ngucap Hong wilaheng, utawi niyat ingsun, nalika jaman para wali kawiwitan kanthi ngucap Bismillaah hirrahma nirrahiim.... lan salajengipun.

    Spell reading, in ancient the spell still in the Javanese language or the Kawi language, but after Majapahit collapsed began to change in a Islamic manner. In part ancient was begun with said Hong Wilaheng, or ‘niat ingsun’ (self intention), then the time of the guardians was begun with Bismillah hirrahmanirahim.... et cetera.

    Discussions no. 4: the spell could be defined as the voice, the sound, words, or the phrase that it was considered could create the transformation. The spell varied in accordance with philosophy that was connected with the aim of the spell. Carried out in part, including in the ceremony of the rain request, many blessings, avoided the danger, or eliminated the enemy. Each human group or the ethnic group had the special spell, including Javanese since ancient the time. The first spell term was recorded in the existence of the tradition came from Vedic (the Indian tradition, in the Javanese community old has been but was not found his note), afterwards became the important part in the tradition and the practice of his community. So also, finally became the spiritual foundation of Hinduisme, Buddhisme, Sikhisme and Jainisme. The use of the spell currently spreads to many spiritual groups that beforehand was in traditions in the east. A "spell" it was said and was shaking in the inner person of humankind repeatedly, moreover from the age to the age was carried out, so as to appear to a convention happen (the agreement) with the universe, so as the spell had the strength. The spell was born from processing the feeling that was high in the spritualism process from humankind worshipped to the Lord as the manifestation of nature and the life. So as the "spell" became a shape of the independent strength, whoever said the spell will get his strength.

  5. Sasampunipun bakalan saton dados dipun tindakaken tuguran kaliyan bakalanipun dipun selehaken wonten ing pelataran supados manunggal kaliyan rembulan tuwin lintang ingkang wonten ing akasa. Ndungkap enjing asring wonten kadadosan gaib ingkang salajengipun dening kyahi empu dipun dadosaken gelaripun utawi namanipun sasampunipun kaaturaken dhumateng raja utawi ingkang andhawuhi damel. Tatacara punika kanamakaken 'sirepan', kyahi empu sareng kaliyan panjak utawi tangga-tepalih malah sok ugi kanca sesamining empu nindakaken tuguran ngantos subuh, sinambi linadosan nyamikan miwah unjukan. Nyamikan ingkang mligi padatanipun wajik.

    After ‘kodokan’ (the layer of the iron) so, then was carried out ‘tuguran’ (stayed up all night), while kodokan that was placed in the wild was open in order to have the unification of the strength with the moon or the star in the space. By the morning often ‘the invisible incident’ happened that eventually it was concluded by empu, for the name of the degree of the kris that was handed over to the King or his customer. The conduct of this stage was mentioned ‘sirepan’, empu together panjak (empu’s servant) and the neighbour even the friend of the ‘panjak’ took part in staying up all night through to at daybreak, while being accompanied the snack and the drink. Special food that was served was wajik that is food from sticky rice that was cooked with coconut milk.

    Discussions no. 5: the concerned behaviour or ‘nglakoni’ was the tradition in the Kejawen belief.. Then in the process of the kris creation also had the stages where being carried out ritual that was simple but very deep. Kodokan was presented and reunited naturally, so that mutually doyo-dinoyo (drove power each other), was provided a basis for by an elucidation that I’m not anyone; meaning that empu carried out observation outside his object, seemed like him only hands that were used to create. The stage ‘sirepan’ was the cultural expression showed the harmony, the co-operativeness, tolerance, the co-operation, appreciated each other, gathered the neighbour...... and this was the insignificant part of Indonesian Archipelago nation civilisation that still was continuing to be maintained.

  6. Sasampunipun punika keris ingkang sampun dipun garap mawujud, lajeng ngancik tataran nyepuh, kyahi empu nyamektakaken bumbung ingkang dipun isi lisah klapa dipun jangkepi mawi lampah srengat tuwin sajen, padatanipun namung sekar telon, tumpeng alit, recehan kangge lelembut tumbas jajan peken saha wangen-wangen kukusing menyan. Dhuwung dipun mantrani kanthi kalarasaken kaliyan ingkang andhawuhing damel. Dhuwung dipun besmi ngantos marong lajeng dipun celupaken wonten ing salebeting bumbung ingkang dipun iseni lisah klapa. Wonten ingkang pucukipun dipun obong malih lajeng katindakaken sepuh dilat punika latu ingkang marong mawi dipun dilat dening kyahi empu ingkang sekti, padatanipun wewahan donganipun inggih punika waosan sastro pinodati, sastro gigir lan rajah kalacakra.

    After the kris that was done have the shape of, entered the stage ‘quenching’. Empu prepared the tube from bamboo that was filled up coconut oil, and carries out the ceremony with the ritual offering, usually only small tumpeng (the rice had the shape of the cone), three flower sorts and coins for the expenses in the market traditional (jajan pasar) by the supernatural beings, while being burnt incense. Read out by the occurring spell as hoped that was wanted. The kris was afterwards burnt glowed was dipped into the cylinder that contained the oil. There is around the ceremony, that his sprout was burnt afterwards was carried out by sepuh jilat 5), that is the tip that glowed that was licked by empu, beforehand was read out spell sastra pinodati, sastra gigir and rajah kalachakra.

    Discussions no. 6: generally the kris was glorified by the Javanese community; in part in the uniqueness of his technology. However the shortage of information in the matter quenching or the process of ‘sepuh’, at that time was not known by the aim did quenching that was as true. In the spiritual analysis, the procession of the kris creation in the stage quenching evidently his accentuation precisely in the ritual holding and the ritual offering as the worship to Hyang Gusti as well as for permission to the attendant around it. Moreover coins that were mentioned in the text were for the expenses to the market of the supernatural beings; was a compensation if there are those that forgot or the lack in his ritual offering. The coins could be spent by him personally by the supernatural being to the market. Afterwards in the sentence: was among them had the kris that his sprout was burnt again afterwards was carried out ‘sepuh jilat’ that is the tip of the kris that glowed was licked by empu, beforehand was read out..... spell sastra pinodati, sastra gigir and rajah kalachakra

    Sepuh jilat’ It was ritual took the form of the procession by licking an iron glows usually the knife glowed that afterwards the knife was dipped suddenly into water with flower, as the symbol of the unification of two strengths. When fire and water were united, was accompanied by the spell statement empu, then was buried the strength in the kris that experienced quenching by this means. ‘Sepuh jilat’ could be interpreted as ngenjingaken doyo (tied the strength/Yoni). In the Sastro Jendro Hayuningrat teaching (especially to the Sastro Jendro association that was led by KPH. Darudriyo Sumodiningrat concentrated in Jakarta), ‘Sepuh jilat’ was a part of ritual worshipped the Lord; that could be explained as the cleaning himself and the unification with the Lord. Definitely for his followers that through the initiation (wejangan). The cleaning himself who was mentioned ‘asesuci’ had four sorts; that is ‘asesuci’ with the earth media, the wind, water and fire. Asesuci with the earth media and the wind were not done (communally) because the ritual this was very personal and was the high stage. Then ‘asesuci’ usually was carried out with the water media and fire. In ritual ‘asesuci’ with fire was done the lick seven times (7X); in accordance with the diagram ‘chandra humankind’ that stated that humankind had seven constructions of the body where inside Kejawen Sastro Jendra was mentioned ‘sapta arga’ (the hair, skin, meat, the vein, blood, bones and marrow). Then the seven (7) construction was cleaned one by one. Where as ‘asesuci’ with water media was to bathe with the flower, in the fragrant atmosphere of incense, this was very usual was done.

    Sepuh jilat’, usually was carried out in the Sidhikara Pusaka ceremony, that is in ritual so that the kris is maintained by his strength; and moreover was ritual worshipped the Lord was carried out by the routine on Thursday (Kliwon) night. In the community Sastro Jendro Hayuningrat beliefs; ‘Sepuh jilat’ was mentioned with the term called ‘jamasan’.

  7. Dhuwung dipun kum ing salebeting toya klapa wayu supados rereged obongan gogrog, padatanipun dipun rendhem ngantos setunggil dalu supados guwayanipun saged boten burem, saengga pamor dhuwung anggadhahi prabawa ingkang endah. Sasampunipun makaten, dhuwung dipun pulihaken mawi jeram pecel ngantos resik, saha lajeng dipun kum warangan. Dhuwung ingkang sampun dipun kum warangan dipun oser-oseri lisah tumunten dipun ‘sanggaraken’ kaseleh ing papan padupan dangunipun ngantos sawatawis dalu, kedah nglangkungi malem Jumuwah Kliwon utawi Selasa Kliwon. Bab punika katindakaken supados mantra manjing sayektos saha dhuwung ampuh saestu. Sasampunipun rampung saestu, dhuwung kadamelaken warangka jumbuh kaliyan wujuding dhuwung tuwin pun saged netepaken, awit mranggi ingkang sae adamel warangka saged kinunci.

    Afterwards the kris was soaked in the coconut juice that for a long time, so that slag after the burning is freed, usually was soaked overnight so as the kris was seen sparkled, as well as emerged the motive of the beautiful layer. After that the kris was cleaned with citric acid, then was soaked the liquid arsenic (warangan; Jw). The kris that has been finished was soaked the liquid arsenic (warangan) was spread oil afterwards ‘disanggarkan’; several days until through Friday Kliwon or on Tuesday Kliwon. This was done so that his spell joins and the kris had the magical strength. After being finished all, the kris was made his sarong that was suitable by the person who was skilled at making the kris sarong, was called ‘mranggi’ and usually his sarong could be locked.

    Discussions no. 7: the sentence that was interesting in point 7 this was to have words ‘disanggarkan’. The word of ‘Sanggar’ is meaning that worship space. Disanggarkan his intention the kris was placed in the worship space. This was done so that all that was carried out materially and non-material could penetrate. Appropriately the Kejawen belief was determined through the certain day, like Friday Kliwon that it was considered as the public holiday that brought the blessing or on Tuesday Kliwon that was believed as the love and the space unification and earth that also was mentioned Anggoro Kasih (Anggoro = on Tuesday; Kasih = Kliwon).

 

The photograph 2: Sastra Jendra community practice a gallance.

The photograph 2: Sastra Jendra community practice a gallance.

The photograph 3: Made by Empu Brojoguno I – Motif two layer, KRA. Sani Gondoadiningrat collections.

The photograph 3: Made by Empu Brojoguno I – Motif two layer, KRA. Sani Gondoadiningrat collections.

To Understanding Esoteric

Esoteri the kris was material matters to the kris covered all of his aspects; as being untangled by the production procession of the kris ritually that concluded the existence of the treatment esoteristik was spiritual from the beginning until being finished. The kris, in a manner the physical shape or mentioned ‘exoteric’ (tangible) contained also symbolic art, in accordance with the character and magic power that was wanted, the symbol was depicted in the shape of the kris was called ‘dhapur’ and the motive ‘pamor’ (layer).

Dhapur or the shape of the kris according to the fine arts was simbolisasi from the aim of his creator. Including the existence of the form of the straight kris (dhapur bener) concluded faith to the lord. Dhapur Jangkung (the 3 curve) symbolised succeeded in gaining the goal. Dhapur Pandawa (the 5 curve) so that his owner could be diplomatic and have the great character like Pandawa Lima (in the puppet story). Like that henceforth through to dhapur that his hollow many like dhapur Ngamper Bantolo (the 15 curve) that symbolised the owner could control the land and the wide territory.

Apart from his form (dhapur), evidently the kris was also created with grand design that was perfect and great; realised in the layer of the motive of ‘pamor’ was linked with the aim esoteric (magic power). Symbols of the pamor motive that was classed in 5 element groups of the fine arts; that was expressed in space of the kris, in accordance with the characteristics of humankind (Chandra manusia) with the understanding of the available element in the human body and the universal (Kejawen view); in part:

  1. If spell reading was aimed for fortune, the association, was liked by the crowd, the glory, prosperity, worldly or the other external life then the pamor motive was organised took the form of the line bent and the rotation symbolised the idea in accordance with the character of ‘water’ (tirta). For example the prestige that was mentioned: scattered rice (wos utah), gold rain (udanmas), sea overflowed (segoro muncar) etc.
  2. The configuration of lines like the broom lined up simbolisasi the disaster sweeper, the army's repellent, the repellent of all cunning, black magic and the bad treatment both physically and non physical. As well as was the symbol of the wise action. The configuration of lines be classed as in the term pamor singkir and pamor hadeg. This strong character was demonstrated by the strength of the 'wind' (bayu) that could clear all of them, flew dust, the foliage, even the roof by appearing but continuing to be able to be felt by his existence.
  3. The pamor that was drafted was mentioned pamor rekan, for example the form of the motive of the palm trees leaves, the leaves genduru, the flower, more specific for glory fortune, the honour, the authority, his owner became the rank. This configuration his feature dangling above like the character from the flame of 'fire' (agni). Recorded in the scope as the representation of nature, for example layer motive of pamor Ron Genduru, Blarak Sinéréd, Sekar Lampés, Sekar Pålå, Sekar Kopi, Mayang Mekar, Pari Sa’uli, etc...
  4. Peace was also symbolised with the existence of the plain kris without the motive of the layer (was called: keleng) compared in himself humankind had the spirit of the sincere service. The plain kris (keleng) usually was made by empu for the requirement for peace, spiritual people, the honesty defence counsel and the characteristics of other peace. The character of the element of the 'earth' (bantolo) was expressed by empu with the plain kris (keleng) without the motive of the layer.
  5. That an integration or pancer in the middle of relatives of four (the depicting of four points of the compass directions) or sedulur papat that in the spiritual process of being the stage transcendental, the achievement of the integration between the space father and the mother of the earth, stood in the middle of the orientation east-south-west-north that was acknowledged as iternity was mentioned aku jagad 6), could produce the horrifying strength in the realisation of the scratch rajah (rajah was the abstract scratch that had the magical strength, could have the shape of old calligraphy). Pamor rajah was created by empu that was magical with the certain aim. Till at this time, only several forms pamor rajah to the kris that could be understood like ‘batu lapak’ had fortune of the owner could disappear, slipped away from the shooting, immune bullets, did not appear although in front of the enemy's eyes, etc.; as well as 'pilulut' to appealing the opponent of the kind (pèlèt), the sexual happiness, etc… there is also rajah Alif, kalacakra etc., still many forms of rajah that was other like the abstract expression of empu that had difficulty being dived into by his meaning.

Gambar diagram jenis pamor dianalogikan dengan unsur-unsur semesta dan keperuntukannya.

Gambar diagram jenis pamor dianalogikan dengan unsur-unsur semesta dan keperuntukannya.

The Horizon

Through the study about the existence of the heirloom kris in connection with the spiritual Javanese culture; in the explanation of the ancient procession of the kris; concluded the existence of the fact, that the kris was from the start of the aim of his creation loaded by the Kejawen belief; we did not need the taboo expressed him. Not chaotic only by technical matter amazement by throwing the spiritual fact away available to the kris.

Currently, the production of the modern kris, experienced the fast progress like in Solo, Jogya, Muntilan, Malang, Gresik, Madura and Bali. In the matter of the increase in skills of the kris artists now, gave the fresh wind because of the new kris (Kamardikan kris) in an exoteric manner (physical) increasingly good and matched the quality of the old kris, certainly really must be appreciated as a resurgence of culture in Indonesia in order to thicken the identity of the nation through the kris culture.

It is hoped! (TJ).

Footnote:

  1. The writer was the alumnus STSRI ASRI - Jogyakarta, active conserved the kris as Secretary General Panji Nusantara and the Management of editorial staff the PAMOR semi journal magazine. The former management DPP. Sastro Jendro Association was domiciled at Jakarta.
  2. Wikipedia; Kejawen.
  3. About “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature) was read from the article of Prof. Dr. Budya Pradipta - SASTRO JENDRO HAYUNINGRAT PANGRUWATING DIYU; the Kertagama Journal the I No. edition 1; the matter 1 February-April 2009; the quotation: It was the Javanese article book was entitled Arjuna Sasrabau (1870), the work of the poet Sindu Sastra, that contained the famous expression: Sastro Jendro Hayuningrat Pangruwating Diyu. The free translation in Indonesian was “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature) the head peace by changing the uncivilised character towards civilisation (to civiliziation). Sastro Jendro Hayuningrat was knowledge (the teaching) and his behaviour the Javanese nation that achieved living perfection.
    In other words Sastro Jendro contained the theory and the practice of the perfect life. The Sastro Jendro term or “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature) contained the very wide meaning, contained theology about knowledge and the behaviour of the Deity that discussed how processed the life starting from when being born to arrived the time was called by the God. The area very much. It was short that said contained about microcosm knowledge along with his laws. According to investigation the system the value the Lord of the Deity, in fact each nation in granted “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature), that the name and his structure depended on the system and their respective typical cultural convention. To the Javanese nation, God bestowed “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature) in the world, the knowledge was bestowed by the God on the human kind in accordance with nature and their respective environment. Throughout history lived of humankind, the God dropped Sastro Jendro off that by humankind, the perception as the Deity's multitudinous teaching. If Adam was believed as first humankind, then necessarily Adam then beforehand received Sastro Jendro. Unfortunately did not have the guidance about the name and the structure “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature) that was received by Adam. Maybe that took the form of the book Adam Makna (Javanese literature)? In the world was known to have two territories that gave birth Sastra Ketuhanan, that is: first, “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature) that came from India. This that was oldest, like the Wedha Book (was estimated was written 5100 years ago by the Wiyasa Receipt) for Hindu group and the Tripitaka book (was estimated was written 2600 years ago by Buddha) for Buddhist group. Secondly, “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature) that from the Middle East, this one was younger than that came from India, like: “Sastra Ketuhanan” (the Deity literature) that was poured in the Zaratustra Book for group of Zind-Avesta, Taurat for the Prophet Musa, Zabur for the Prophet's group Daud, Injil for the Prophet's group Isa, and Al-Quran for the Prophet's group Muhammad. Ad. This not yet the other holy scriptures that was received by nations outside Indian nations and the Middle East. Without the human eminence, will result in the behaviour of shifting humankind deviating from the harmony memayu hayuning bawana (the involvement to harmonise the world).. . . . Including the occurrence: the disturbance that was caused by the interdenominational conflict, the suppression right-basic humankind, the moral loss and ethics, and especially the essence loss understood the characteristics of the lord. The character in the scope of the harmony memayu hayuning bawana, was read in existence reality of ritual traditions that the universe. Interacted in the everyday life of humankind, and was the complexity of horizontal faith - vertical. Tikal. Like ritual "clean the village", ruwatan, the ceremonial meal ceremony including the production procession of the heirloom kris in the ceremony sidikara (sinidhikara; Kawi language = spell reading so that the strength continues to be treated).
  4. Translated in the Javanese language by Adie Deswijaya, Javanese Literature graduate that settled in Sukohardjo-Solo.
  5. Sepuh dilat (licked quenching) had been written in ritual that was held by Sinuhun Paku Buwana X opposite the guest of the Siam king that is Rama to IV (Chulalonkorn) in the north town square; the S. Lumintu article (the clipping Buana Minggu) and the Sri Susuhunan Pakoe Boewono X stencil book - Kenanganku Sepanjang Masa, by KPH. Djojohadinegoro S.H. (in July 1990). In the book of Keris Jawa; antara Mistik dan Nalar, was written by Haryono Guritno, the last empu (smith) that was recorded could do the sepuh dilat was Wirasukadgo in the Buwana X nail time, had been shown off in the Town Hall.
  6. The condition for my occurrence the world must be understood beforehand that humankind had the abstraction of four relatives who were analogous to the Javanese calendar/points of the compass/the element of the body/aura and the Javanese letter as follows, was:
  • The navel: Legi - East - Wind – white Aura - HO NO CO RO KO
  • The blood: Paing – South - Fire – red Aura - DO TO SO WO LO
  • Kakang Kawah/ketuban: Pon – West - Water – yellow Aura - PO DHO JO YO NYO
  • Placenta: Wage – North - Earth – black Aura - MO GO BO THO NGO
    “Aku Jagad” (personal relations with the universal) was the microcosm unification and the big world, where I was the queen at the world that sat in the middle of-was him the orientation was sheltered by the space father and the mother of the earth. The condition for this integration produced the strength that could be visualised in a scratch rajah.

References:

  1. Anonim. The year? Kagungan dalem Serat Saranduning Dhuwung. The collection Radhya Pustaka Museum. Solo.
  2. Haryono Haryoguritno. 2005. Keris Jawa, Antara Mistik dan Nalar. Jakarta. Indonesia Kebanggaanku.
  3. Koentjaraningrat. 1984. Kebudayaan Jawa. Jakarta. Publisher Balai Pustaka.
  4. KPH. Djojohadinegoro S.H. Juli 1990.”Sri Susuhunan Pakoe Boewono X - Kenanganku Sepanjang Masa”, the stencil.
  5. Mulder, Niels. 1984. Kebatinan dan Hidup Sehari-hari orang Jawa: Kelangsungan dan Perubahan Kulturil. Jakarta. Gramedia.
  6. Situs Wikiepedia. Kejawen.
  7. S. Prawiro Atmojo. 1980. Bausastra Jawa-Indonesia. Jakarta. Gunung Agung.
  8. S. Harjanto. 1978. Sastra Jendra. Jakarta. Jambatan.
  9. T. Sianipar, Alwisol, Munawir Yusuf. 1989. Dukun, mantra, dan kepercayaan masyarakat. Pustakakarya Grafistama.
  10. Tan Khoen Swie. 1929. Serat Sastrahardjendra – Anjarijosaken pupuntoning kawruh kasampurnan, sarta tjunduk kalijan pikajenganipun ngelmi ma’rifat. Kediri. Publisher Tan Khoen Swie.
  11. Tan Moh Goan. 1912. Riwajat Modjopahit. Petak Baroe – Batavia Stad. Publisher Eng Hoat.

 

 

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